Arboriculture (play /ˈɑrbərɨkʌlər/) is the cultivation, management, and study of individual treesshrubsvines, and other perennial woody plants. It is both a practice and a science.

The science of arboriculture studies how these plants grow and respond to cultural practices and to their environment. The practice of arboriculture includes cultural techniques such as selection, planting, training, fertilization, pest and pathogen control, pruning, shaping, and removal.

Risk management, legal issues, and aesthetic considerations have come to play prominent roles in the practice of arboriculture.

Arboriculture is primarily focused on individual woody plants and trees maintained for permanent landscape and amenity purposes, usually in gardens, parks or other populated settings, by arborists, for the enjoyment, protection, and benefit of human beings. It is therefore related to, but distinct from agriculture,horticultureurban forestryforestrydendrology, and silviculture.